The turn from the 15th to the 16th century brought something of a revolution to the craft of shoemaking. Around this time the turnshoe starts to be replaced by shoes built very much in the fashion they are up to this day.
The shoes now are increasingly constructed right side out. The outer sole is sewn to the upper with the help of a welt, a narrow strip of leather that acts as a link between the two.
The best known type of the 16th century certainly is the Cowmouth or Tudor shoe, also know as Oxmule. It is characterized by its wide toe area and an upper reduced to the minimum. In order to make sure it stays on the foot it is often tied with a single pair of laces or a narow strip of leather and a small buckle.